17th Century Europe
The Thirty Years War 1618-1648
The English Civil War 1642-1651
England – King James I 1603-1625, Charles I 1625-1649, Charles II 1660-1685, James II & VII 1685-1688, William III & II & Mary II 1689-1702.
France – King Louis XIII 1610-1643, Louis XIV 1643-1715.
Russia – Czar Michael I 1613-1645, Alexi I 1645-1676, Feodor III 1676-1682, Peter I 1682-1725.
Spain – Phillip III 1598-1621, Phillip IV 1621-1665, Charles II 1665-1700.
Holy Roman Emperor – Matthias 1612-1619, Ferdinand II 1619-1637, Ferdinand III 1637-1657, Leopold I 1658-1705.
Pope – Paul V 1605-1621 (persecuted Galileo), Gregory XV 1621-1623, Urban VIII 1623-1644, Innocent X 1644-1655, Alexander VII 1655-1667, Clement IX 1667-1669, Clement X 1670-1676, Innocent XI 1676-1689, Alexander VIII 1689-1691, Innocent XII 1691-1700.
1600. Giordano Bruno is burned as a heretic.
English East India Company established.
1600-1603. The God that Crawls.
1603. Ieyasu rules Japan, moves capital to Edo (Tokyo).
Shakespeare's Hamlet is first performed.
1605. Cervantes's Don Quixote de la Mancha, the first modern novel.
1607. Jamestown, Virginia, established—first permanent English colony on American mainland.
Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, saves the life of John Smith.
1609. Samuel de Champlain establishes French colony of Quebec.
The Relation, the first newspaper, debuts in Germany.
The telescope is invented by Hans Lippershey, a Dutch scientist.
From 1609 to 1611 Henry Hudson of England, sailing for the Dutch East India Company, explores the Chesapeake, Delaware, and New York bays.
1610. Galileo sees the moons of Jupiter through his telescope.
1611. Gustavus Adolphus elected King of Sweden.
King James Version of the Bible published in England.
Rubens paints his Descent from the Cross.
1614. John Napier discovers logarithms.
1616. Shakespeare dies.
1617. Blood in the Chocolate.
1618. Start of the Thirty Years' War, Protestants revolt against Catholic oppression; Denmark, Sweden, and France will invade the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) in later phases of the war.
Kepler proposes last of three laws of planetary motion.
1619. A Dutch ship brings the first African slaves to British North America.
1620. Pilgrims, after a three-month voyage on the Mayflower, land at Plymouth Rock.
Francis Bacon's Novum Organum is published.
The first weekly newspaper in Europe begins publication in Amsterdam.
1623. New Netherland founded by Dutch West India Company.
1625. Death Love Doom, Forgive Us, More Than Meets the Eye.
New Amsterdam is founded in July by the Dutch West India Company.
1630. Massachusetts Bay Colony established.
1631. Better Than Any Man.
1632. No Rest for the Wicked.
Maryland founded by Lord Baltimore.
1633. Inquisition forces Galileo (astronomer) to recant his belief in Copernican theory.
1635. Fish F***ers.
1642. England Upturn’d.
English Civil War. Cavaliers, supporters of Charles I, fight against Roundheads, parliamentary forces.
Abel Tasman of the Netherlands discovers Tasmania and New Zealand.
Rembrandt paints his Night Watch.
1643. Taj Mahal completed.
1644. End of Ming Dynasty in China—Manchus comes to power.
Descartes's Principles of Philosophy.
1646. Oliver Cromwell defeats Royalists.
1648. End of the Thirty Years' War. German population about half of what it was in 1618 because of war and pestilence.
In England, Parliament demands reforms. Charles I offers concessions, and is brought to trial.
1649. Charles I is beheaded.
The Bank of England is founded. Merchants and tradesmen began to exchange promissory notes as a form of money. The goldsmiths realized that not all of their customers would withdraw their gold at the same time. So it was safe to issue notes for more gold than they actually had. They could then lend money using the extra notes.
1653. Cromwell becomes Lord Protector.
1658. Cromwell dies; son Richard resigns and Puritan government collapses.
1660. English Parliament calls for the restoration of the monarchy; invites Charles II to return from France.
1661. Charles II is crowned King of England.
Louis XIV begins personal rule as absolute monarch; starts to build Versailles.
1664. The British take New Amsterdam from the Dutch, renaming it New York. English limit “Nonconformity” with reestablished Anglican Church.
Isaac Newton experiments with gravity.
1665. Great Plague in London kills 75,000.
1666. Aresde de Torki prints “The Nine Gates of the Kingdom of Shadows”, adapted from the “de la Malonica” a book supposedly written by the devil.
Great Fire of London.
Molière's Misanthrope is printed.
1667. Milton's Paradise Lost is printed, widely considered the greatest epic poem in English.
1682. Pennsylvania founded by William Penn.
1683. War of European powers against the Turks (to 1699). Vienna withstands three-month Turkish siege; high point of Turkish advance in Europe.
1684. The Squid, the Cabal, and the Old Man.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's Calculus published.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's Calculus published.
1685. James II succeeds Charles II in England, calls for freedom of conscience (1687). Protestants fear restoration of Catholicism and demand “Glorious Revolution.” William of Orange invited to England and James II escapes to France (1688). William III and his wife, Mary, crowned.
In France, Edict of Nantes of 1598, granting freedom of worship to Huguenots, is revoked by Louis XIV; thousands of Protestants flee.
1689. Peter the Great becomes Czar of Russia—attempts to westernize nation and build Russia as a military power.
Beginning of the French and Indian Wars (to 1763), campaigns in America linked to a series of wars between France and England for domination of Europe.
1690. William III of England defeats former king James II and Irish rebels at Battle of the Boyne in Ireland.
John Locke's Human Understanding is printed.
1699. End of the War with the Turks.